The following websites will give an overview of Flaccid Dysarthria in regards to: Definition, Etiology, and Treatment/Management
Healthline.com – Dysarthria
The Healthline.com website offers information about 250,000 medical concepts including diseases, conditions, causes, symptoms, diagnoses, treatments. This site would be an appropriate resource for the general public as well as those with a background in speech-language pathology or the healthcare field. The flaccid dysarthria section of the site contains a comprehensive description of the etiology, symptoms and possible treatment of this type of dysarthria, and presents the information in a fairly reader friendly manner, making it a useful site even for those without knowledge of clinical terminology.
The indented audience of the website appears to be adults with or without a background in the healthcare field. While some terms are used that might be unfamiliar to most, (the average consumer might not be aware of the meaning of “depressed tactile feedback”) terminology is often accompanied by consumer friendly synonyms or explanations. For example fasciculations are described as “twitch-like behaviors” and atrophy is defined as “shrinkage”. In addition, selected terms are highlighted and clicking on the link opens a new window with a definition and further information about the word, including images and videos.
The content of the flaccid dysarthria page on the Healthline website appears to be of good quality. The causes of flaccid dysarthria listed are accurate and the concept of lower motor neuron damage is explained. The treatment section of the webpage is general and brief and does not describe any specific treatment methods, however the option of alternative and augmentative communication is mentioned. This information could be valuable for individuals who are not familiar with AAC devices.
According to the “about us” section of the website, the content on Healthline is maintained by a team of medical informatics specialists. The website also offers additional resources for flaccid dysarthria information. Six books are listed by respected authors such as Duffy. The flaccid dysarthria webpage does contain any direct links to additional internet resources.
The author of the dysarthria section of the website appears to be a very credible source. A google search revealed that Dr. Workin is currently a member of the Ear Nose and Throat team at Harper University Hospital and has more than 30 years of clinical and academic experience. He is board certified by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) and has authored 73 peer reviewed journals and six textbooks. Overall, I would rate this webpage as excellent and would suggest it as a resource for patients diagnosed with dysarthria as well as their family and friends to become more familiar with the disorder. (Laura Bence)
Speech Therapy on Video- Improving Dysarthria with Intensive Therapy
The speech-therapy-on-video website was created by Communication Scripts, Inc., a Long Island based organization established in 2004. The purpose of the organization appears to be to sell videos, claiming they offer successful therapeutic principals in video format “to make effective speech-language therapy accessible and affordable to everyone.” In addition to the videos the website offers information on various communication disorders including flaccid dysarthria, which could serve as an introduction to this type of dysrarthria and the disorder as a whole.
The intended audience of the webpage appears to be patients with dysarthria and their caregivers or loved ones. The webpage provides a simplistic definition of the disorder and touches on characteristics, causes, and treatment. The site also gives an overview of the coordination of breathing, articulation, and voicing that occurs during speech. The content was consumer friendly and could be understood by individuals who do not have prior knowledge of motor speech disorders. However, while clear, the information available was brief and not specific or thorough.
The site discusses the etiology of dysarthria in a basic way, citing “damage to the nerves directly connected to oral muscles”, however does not specify that flaccid dysarthria is connected to damage of the lower motor neurons. The page mentions nasal quality, breathy voice and imprecise consonant production as the three characteristics of flaccid dysarthria, and includes features such as muscle weakness as characteristics common to most dysarthrias. In regards to treatment, both traditional speech therapy and oral motor therapy are briefly discussed with links to site’s oral motor exercise page. Also in this section, Communication Scripts videos are recommended as a way to improve ones speech and “end the frustration of dysarthria”.
While the website presented information which could be a helpful introduction to individuals unfamiliar with dysarthria and wanting a basic overview, it contained some concerning aspects that caused me to question the integrity of the site and the Communication Scripts organization itself. Because each individual case is different, it seems troublesome for an organization to recommended that individuals with dysarthria practice specific exercises without the advice and guidance of a speech language pathologist who can asses the individual’s specific needs. Based on content on the flaccid dysarthria page and other areas of the website, Communication Scripts also seems to be a strong proponent of non-speech oral motor exercises. Due to the lack of evidence available to support the effectiveness of such exercises, I would be skeptical of an organization which puts such an emphasis on this type of treatment. Overall I would rate this website as fair to poor and would not likely refer it as a source for my clients or patients. (Laura Bence)
Children’s Speech Care Center- Dysarthria
The Children’s Speech Care Center’s website provides a concise overview of the causes and characteristics of dysarthria, including those specific to flaccid. The webpage focuses on dysarthria in children, pointing out that although the disorder is more commonly present in adults, particularly the elderly, it can be seen in children as well. I found the discussion of the etiology of to be clear enough for a parent or caregiver to comprehend yet detailed enough to provide a rich explanation. The characteristics of flaccid dysarthira discussed on the site focused on the muscle weakness and loss of muscle tone present in flaccid dysarthira and described flaccid speech as being breathy, weak, lacking in intonation and having imprecise consonants.
The page also discussed the differences between dysarthria and dyspraxia, another disorder which could appear to be similar to dyarthria. While diagnosis and treatment are not discussed at length, the Children’s Speech Care Center mentioned that diagnosis is typically made in a team approach and speech language pathologists may work with other professionals such as a physical or occupational therapists and neurologists when assessing and treating the disorder.
I found the webpage to be easy to navigate, with the various topics included on the site organized well. The webpage as a whole also provides access to additional valuable resources including a glossary of terms with parent friendly definitions and an online medical library. Three additional internet resources were provided on the dysarthria page, however all three links were broken and did not lead to additional webpages.
The webpage seems to be created by a creatable source, which suggests the material is reliable. The Children’s Speech Care Center is a speech and language clinic located in California which treats both children and adults. A brief biography of the author of the dysarthria page is available on the site which reported she earned a master’s degree in communicative disorders and was in the top one percent of her class at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB). Contact information including an address and phone number is easily accessible however an email address is not available. I would likely recommend this site as an introductory resource or patients, particularly for parents with children with dysarthria. (Laura Bence)
YGOY is a website where people can post information on different disorders. I found the website to be helpful in that there are a number of different articles posted. It is very easy to read and can be a useful tool for the general public that is not familiar with medical terminology or anatomy.
A page posted about flaccid dysarthria provides a brief description of the different symptoms of the particular disorder. For someone who is looking for a concise, bulleted format of what to look for when suspecting the presence of dysarthria, the website can be accommodating. However, for those who are looking for more in depth information I would not recommend the website. With only symptoms listed, the website did not mention etiology or treatment and management of the motor speech disorder.
When searching for the author of the particular page I found on flaccid dysarthria, I discovered that the author is not mentioned. As a professional or someone searching for information, I would like to know that the author of a website I am reading
is a credible informant. Since the author is not mentioned I was not able to feel completely comfortable with the information. The website also did not provide an “About US” or a “Contact Us” section. I would have like to read more information on YGOY and where and how they get their information; however this was impossible. I even searched for reviews of the website but was unsuccessful in doing so. I also was unsuccessful in finding a way to contact the website. I think having a contact number or email would help readers feel more at ease with the information provided on the page. (Vanessa Caraccia)
“Healthy Lifestyle” is a website that provides information on the latest news regarding health and wellness; it also contains a number of different articles on healthy choices. The page I found is entitled “Treatment of Dysarthria.” Present on this page is an easy to read description of dysarthria. Since the website is very easy to read and does not contain difficult vocabulary, I believe the target audience is for the general public. It does not go into depth about anatomy or specific etiology and treatment; therefore those in the professional setting would benefit from more medically based resources.
The definition of dysarthria is provided. It also provides the list of different types of dysarthrias and its associated site of lesion. Rather than describing in depth the causes and symptoms of each dysarthria, the page points out these aspects of the disorder as a whole. It is mentioned that treatment is dependent on the underlying cause and specific type of disease; however it does not break down each dysarthria in depth.
Oral treatment is mentioned; however listed under oral treatment just reads “Speech therapy exercises.” Unless I continue on my reading of oral treatment of motor speech disorders, I would not know exactly what speech therapy exercises are appropriate. For those who are not familiar with dysarthria, this small piece of information is simply not enough.
As with “YGOY” I had no success with finding an “About Us” section on “Healthy Lifestyle.” Just from searching through the website I got a small idea of what kind of site it is but I still do not know where the information came from. (Vanessa Caraccia)
“Center for Speech, Language and Occupational Therapy” CSLOT
CLSOT is a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic center that serves both children and adults. The Center offers therapy and information regarding speech and language disorders, accented English and occupational therapy. Reading the “About Us” section I received a good understanding of the different services and programs CLSOT provides.
Under the “About Adults” tab is a menu containing information on such things as apraxia, brain injury, stroke, swallowing and dysarthria. The page I found on the CLSOT website is entitled “What is Dysarthria?” The page provides information on what dysarthria is, what some of the causes are, and it mentions some of the symptoms. It describes that there are different types of dysarthrias that present with different symptoms. Each type of dysarthria are a results of damage to different parts of the brain. “What is Dysarthria?” mentions flaccid dysarthria results from damage to the lower motor neurons. Some of the symptoms are mentioned in terms of speech production and muscle movement. Small tremors are also stated to disrupt fluent speech. Specifically, /p/, /t/, /k/, /s/, /f/ are mentioned to be more susceptible to error when articulating.
Overall, I thought this website to be the most useful out of the three websites I have found. It was very easy to follow and is friendly to the general public. The site itself is very organized and easy to navigate through. Although it is a website for a specific business, important information on dysarthria is provided. I did not find additional hyperlinks for further resources however I do believe the site is credible. A “Contact US” page is present with email addresses and telephone numbers. (Vanessa Caraccia)
Flaccid Dysarthria: Definition Etiology, Treatment/Management
This site, found on the Everything Speech website, was edifying and detailed. The site itself caters to speech-language pathologists, as well as other professionals working in the healthcare field who may come into contact with people with dysarthria. While the organization is not philanthropic, and there was no “about me” section, the information provided on the “home” page explained the need for speech pathologists to collaborate on a site that provides resources for therapy, unfamiliar conditions, and job opportunities. This site did just that.
The information provided on this site was accurate and detailed. Dysarthria was the headlining title of the website, and a general definition was given at the start of the page. Flaccid dysarthria was then explained in terms of etiology and speech and non-speech characteristics. The site went so far as to explain how each characteristic was associated with to damage to specific cranial nerves. Imprecise articulations, hypernasality, and nasal emissions were also explained as trademarks of flaccid dysarthria. Treatment for dysarthria, broken down into respiration, phonation, resonance, and articulation sections, were provided on another page, through a hyperlink on the bottom of the page, clearly entitled “dysarthria treatment.”
While there were no specific names of authors or creators of the website, there was a “contact us” section that allowed for a visitor to send an email to the administrator of the site. While this was beneficial, there was no phone number or address for which to send questions or concerns, which could make the organization less accessible.
While this site is informative, functional, and well designed, its intended audience is speech-language pathologists, and others working in the medical field. Terminology is complex, and would not be easily understood by those outside the healthcare field. The different cranial nerves, and the effects of damage to them, would be overwhelming to someone unfamiliar with the jargon. This site is a great tool and resource for those in the field of speech-language pathology, but is not useful for family, friends, patients, or other members of the general public. (Kelly Faller and Nichole Metzler)
This site seems to exemplify dysarthria in its simplest form. The wording and terminology used to describe the condition is basic and rudimentary, and the site provides little explanation for the information provided. The site itself does not seem to be trustworthy, proven by the “about buzzle” section. The site is comprised of a collaboration of various authors, and invites visitors to submit their own articles or information about topics of their choice. The author listed for this site was provided with a hyperlink, which explained her educational in political science, and experience with journalism classes. This is not a reliable source for information within the field of speech-language pathology.
The information provided on this site is overgeneralized, and lends the characteristics and symptomology specific to different types of dysarthria to one broad category. This overreaching definition of etiology, symptoms, and treatment is misleading for visitors of the site, as there is a reason that different types of dysarthria exist. There were a few sentences that spoke to flaccid dysarthria, but again the information was simple and incomplete. The site did correctly indicate the site of lesion for flaccid, versus spastic, dysarthria, differentiating that flaccid dysarthria was caused by damage to lower motor neurons. Though the information was simplistic, the overall accuracy of information provided was relatively precise. Sources and references for information was not provided, so it is difficult to judge the quality of information accurately
The intended audience was clearly the general population, specifically those who may feel they are suffering for dysarthria. The author included a disclaimer on the bottom of the information, urging those who feel they are suffering with dysarthria to seek medical attention. The author also explained the role of the speech-language pathologist in treatment, which indicates that the anticipated audience would not be in the speech or healthcare fields. (Kelly Faller)
Dysarthria- International Encyclopedia of Rehabilitation
While this site is not visually appealing, the first characteristic that can be noticed is its organization of information. Subtitles are bold and easy to read and notice, and there is a Table of Contents on the right hand side of the page, allowing the viewer to skip to the information they are interested in, anticipating that some views will not view the entire site. The site’s trustworthiness and quality are also verified early on by the indication of the author, his contact information, and his experience in the field, also found on the top of the page.
Information is thorough and well explained throughout the site. An introduction to dysarthria is indicated first, followed by its etiology, types, differential diagnoses, assessment, treatment, and conclusion. The author provides references at the bottom, and includes articles and books, as well as ASHA, the American Speech and Hearing Association. This further verifies the quality of information found on the site. Information regarding specific types of dysarthria is brief and lacks detail, only accounting for one sentence within the entire website. The overarching topic of dysarthria, however, is concise and comprehensive.
The intended audience for this site varies. Some of the language used to describe dysarthria, and its etiology, assessment, and treatment, is geared towards those within the speech-language pathology and other healthcare fields. There are explanations of medical terminology, which follow lengthy sections of medical jargon, which can be interpreted and understood by non-medical populations. There is a lot of information, so the use of a table of contents at the beginning of the site makes the site more manageable for the general public. The site offers its information in English, Spanish, and French, which is another feature of the site that makes it more user friendly and accessible to a broader range of visitors. (Kelly Faller)
The quality of the site is good, it has a lot of color and pictures to keep the viewer interested. The sites information is categorized into five categories: overview, etiologies, differential dx, treatment and references. Once the site viewer picks one of them, there is a list of links to choose from regarding one of the five categories. The website has no advertisements which I found very refreshing because I have found the ads on other websites to be distracting and misleading.
There were four authors from this website however; there wasn’t an “about us” section. It appears to have been a class assignment and no other information can be found on the constructors of the website. The sources of information are cited on a reference page which makes the website raises the websites reliability and gives the website viewer places to go to look for more information on flaccid dysarthria. The information comes from text books all published within ten years of now. All of the information on the website is verifiable and nothing appeared suspicious. The website does not have an area to ask questions or any way of reaching the authors.
This website is intended for students. A lot of the medical jargon may be confusing for the average viewer or family member of a person with dysarthria. A majority of the information came from college text books and it appears that college undergraduate or graduate students were the target audience. If the website viewer is a student they would find a great deal of reliable information regarding all areas of flaccid dysarthria in one area. The website is definitely at the appropriate level for the intended audience. I would rate this website as good. It’s easy to navigate and offers good and reliable information about the topic. (Nichole Metzler)
Wrongdiagnosis.com is a consumer site with online mainstream medical health information from consumers and health professionals. The objective of the site is to encourage consumers to be informed and interested in managing their health, and to know what questions to ask their doctors to help ensure they are getting the best healthcare possible. The site provides the user with medical tools and services, articles, and forums and message boards. This site would be appropriate for a speech language pathology student, speech language pathologist or a client. The information is easily read and many medical terms contain hyperlinks to give a definition of what they are.
The information provided in the website is accurate and includes excerpts from books that one can click on for additional information. Where the actual information the website comes from is not cited but based on a review of the information provided proves to be correct. The website is made up of many hyperlinks. The user is able to “jump” around the site to find exactly what they are looking for about flaccid dysarthria by following the links. The main links that viewer is initially provided with for flaccid dysarthria are: Introduction, Symptoms, Diagnosis, misdiagnosis, causes, online books, treatment, community, and reference. While the hyperlinks are helpful there are many ads on the pages and it can be confusing to know what information is from the website and what is a advertisement. Overall the website gives the viewer a good overview of flaccid dysarthria with solid facts and information.
Wrongdiagnosis.com can be contacted via email at five different addresses; regarding the nature of the email. The four categories include: advertising, media relations, partnerships, feedback, and other. They do not have a mailing address or a phone contact.